What are proteins? - What are proteins made of?

What are Proteins made of?

What are proteins?

Proteins are highly complex compounds made of nitrogenous organic macromolecules comprising a variety of α amino acids which are joined together by peptide bonds.
They are formed by the complex polymerization of amino acids and are essential for every biochemical function of the living organisms.
They are the building blocks of the living beings right from the simple forms like virus to higher animals with complex organ systems.
Nearly 50% of the dry weight of the organisms constitute these complex structures.

What are proteins made of?

Proteins are essentially formed from a number of amino acids which in turn are made of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen.
Nearly all them contain nitrogen and sulphur.
Specialised structures are formed with the incorporation of minerals like phosphorus, copper, zinc and iron.
Proteins molecules are large and have high molecular weights.
Proteins are made from 2-100 numbers of amino acids having molecular weight of about 10kDa are called peptides.
The combination sequence of these amino acids can produce innumerable proteins.
In the E.coli bacteria cell there are 3000 different known varieties.
The optical isomers of alanine, D-Alanine and L-Alanine

They are made of three very important structure levels namely primary, secondary and tertiary.
The primary level is the amino acid sequence and is determined by gene expression.
In the secondary level of structure, the angles of bonds (covalent) within and between the amino acids determines the geometrical shape usually helix.
The tertiary three dimensional level of structure of folds and loops is due to the repulsion of like charged amino acid groups and attraction of oppositely charged amino acid groups.
This structure is usually the basis for the biological activity of proteins. 
They are primarily the organic structure basis of skin, hair, tendons, bones, muscles and cartilage. 
All our organs and body fluids contain and made of them. 
The enzymes, hormones, blood and serum contain them and body functions like digestion, circulation are brought about by them.
Proteins are made from amino acids
Proteins are made with 22 amino acids of which eight are essential amino acids.
These amino acids are considered essential because the body cannot synthesise them.
The rest of the 14 amino acids are synthesised by the adult human body.
Essential amino acids for humans: Isoleucine,Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan and Valine Amino acids synthesised by adult body: Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, Cysteine, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Proline, Selenocysteine, Serine, Tyrosine, Arginine, Histidine and Pyrrolysine.
Of these cysteine, histidine, tyrosine and arginine are essential for infants and growing children as they are not produced by them.

Related topics:
Types of proteins
Functions in body
Daily requirements

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What are proteins? - What are proteins made of?

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