Malnutrition diseases - Nutrition disorders

Jan 2014  Malnutrition diseases - Nutrition disorders
Malnutrition diseases, which are nutrition disorders, occur as a result of our body not getting enough of or excess of nutrients.

Carbohydrate malnutrition diseases and nutrition disorders

Deficient malnutrition: Carbohydrates are easy and faster sources for energy production in the human body.
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The shortage of carbohydrates in food causes nutrition problems like energy starvation, weakness and lethargy.
Excess nutrition: Consumption of excess carbohydrates above the body requirement for a long period of time causes obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

protein nutrition disorders and malnutrition diseases

Deficient malnutrition: Protein deficiency in children causes malnutrition diseases like kwashiorkor.
kwashiorkor is marked by pedal edema, pot belly and wasted body muscles.
Excess nutrition: Prolonged consumption of excess of protein especially in the absence of fats causes nutrition problem called rabbit starvation in which there is discomfort and hunger that can be satiated only by the intake of fat and carbohydrates.
Other symptoms of this protein excess nutrition include low blood pressure, low pulse rate, fatigue, diarrhea and headache.
Kwashiorkor
Kwashiorkor in infant (enlarge)

Protein-energy malnutrition diseases and nutrition disorders

When there is both protein and energy deficiency arising due to malnutrition, a condition called marasmus arises in which there is emaciation and extensive muscle and tissue wasting.
marasmus
Marasmus in a boy (enlarge)
Catabolytis is an extreme biological process wherein the fat and muscle tissue are broken down to stay alive in the event of starvation.

Fat malnutrition and nutrition

Deficient malnutrition: deficiency of fats in nutrition causes low sex hormone levels and malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
Fat deficiency coupled with high intake of proteins causes 'rabbit starvation' condition.
Excess nutrition: Fats when consumed in excess of requirement can result in cardiovascular problems and obesity.

Minerals nutrition disorders and malnutrition

Many malnutrition diseases are caused by the deficiency of minerals.
Iodine
Deficient malnutrition: Goiter, cretinism and hypothyroidism are the results of dietary Iodine deficiency.
Iron
Deficient malnutrition: Iron deficiency in nutrition causes anemia with symptoms of decreased hemoglobin in blood.
Excess nutrition disorders: Iron in excess causes iron overload and iron intoxication damaging intestinal lining and liver.
Sodium
Deficient malnutrition: Hyponatremia and electrolyte disturbance occurs in deficiency with fluid retention.
Excess nutrition: Hypernatremia and electrolyte disturbance occurs affecting oxygen transport.
Calcium
Deficient malnutrition: Hypocalcaemia occurs with electrolyte disturbance.
Excess nutrition: Hypocalcaemia occurs in excess consumption.
Potassium
Deficient malnutrition diseases: Hypokalemia with symptoms like elevated blood pressure is caused when there is malnutrition of this mineral.
Excess nutrition disorders: Hyperkalemia with symptoms like palpitation and muscle weakness is encountered in excess nutrition of potassium.
Magnesium
Deficient malnutrition diseases: Muscle weakness and hyperexcitability are symptoms of its deficiency. In severe deficiency death may occur from heart failure.
Excess nutrition: Hypermagnesemia occurs in persons with renal impairment with symptoms like nausea, vomiting and weakness.
Phosphorus
Deficiency malnutrition: Hypophosphatemia occurs.
Excess nutrition: Hyperphosphatemia occurs.
Zinc
Deficiency malnutrition diseases: Hair loss, diarrhea, wasting of body tissues and skin lesions occur due to Zinc deficiency.
Excess nutrition disorders: Zinc in excess causes zinc toxicity which suppresses copper and iron absorption.
Copper
Deficiency malnutrition diseases: Pancytopenia is caused with reduction in the number of white and red blood cells and platelets.
Excess nutrition: Copper toxicity shows symptoms like palsy and convulsions and in some cases result in death.

Vitamins malnutrition diseases and nutrition disorders

There is much negative impact in health with the deficiency of vitamins in the nutrition.
Vitamin A
Deficiency malnutrition: Deficiency of vitamin A causes low testosterone levels, night blindness and Xerophthalmia. In Xerophthalmia the eye fails to produce tears leading to dryness of cornea and conjunctiva.
Excess nutrition disorders: Hypervitaminosis A is the condition caused by excess of vitamin A. The malnutrition effects include angular cheilitis, hair loss, excessively dry skin, birth defects, nausea and vomiting, headache, blurred vision and reduced muscle coordination.
Vitamin B1
Deficiency malnutrition: The deficiency of vitamin B1 in nutrition causes Beriberi leading to neurodegeneration, wasting and death.
Excess nutrition: Adverse effects are not recorded for higher doses.
Vitamin B2
Deficiency malnutrition: Deficiency of riboflavin (vitamin B2) gives rise to a medical condition called Ariboflavinos. This characterised by sore throat, cracking of the lips and corners of the mouth, glossitis and seborrheic dermatitis.
Excess: No averse effects are reported for excess consumption of riboflavin.
Vitamin B3
Deficiency malnutrition: Deficiency of niacin leads to Pellagra.
The affected person suffers from hypersensitivity to light, diarrhea, dementia and dermatitis.
Excess nutrition disorders: excess of niacin can cause birth defects, cardiac arrhythmias and dyspepsia.
Vitamin B6
Deficiency malnutrition: Lack of vitamin B6 causes seizures, nerve damage, anemia, skin problems and mouth sores.
Excess nutrition: Overdose causes neurological problems like numbness, staggering and poor coordination.
Vitamin B7
Deficiency malnutrition: Hair loss, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, depression and hallucination are some of the symptoms of deficiency.
Excess: No adverse effects are reported for excess consumption.
Vitamin B9
Deficiency malnutrition: Neural tube defects in developing embryos and impaired DNA synthesis and repair are some of the effects of deficiency.
Excess disorders: No adverse reactions are found for overdose.
Vitamin B12
Deficiency diseases: Pernicious anemia occurs when there is nutrition deficiency of this vitamin. Symptoms like sore tongue, weakness, paraesthesias, diarrhea and memory changes are seen. Excess disorders: No adverse effects have been reported in case of heavy doses of vitamin B12.
Vitamin C
Deficiency: Scurvy is the result of deficiency of vitamin C.
Symptoms include bleeding gums and mucous membranes and suppurating wounds.
Excess nutrition: Excess of vitamin C may lead to diarrhea and upset stomach.
Vitamin D
Deficiency malnutrition diseases: Deficiency of vitamin D causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.
Excess nutrition disorders: Excess of vitamin D leads to hypervitaminosis D with vomiting, dehydration and constipation.
Vitamin E
Deficiency malnutrition: Vitamin E deficiency causes poor nerve conduction and neurological problems.
Excess nutrition disorders: Hypervitaminosis E is the result excess of vitamin E, leading to excessive bleeding.
Vitamin K
Deficiency malnutrition: Vitamin K is required for blood coagulation and the deficiency leads to hemorrhage.
Excess disorders: There are no adverse effects of excess consumption of vitamin K.

Diseases and conditions causing malnutrition and nutrition disorders

  • AIDS
  • Achalasia (esophageal motility disorders)
  • Alzheimer diseases ( Senile Dementia)
  • Autoimmune enteropathy (intestinal wall is attacked by one's own immune system)
  • Blind loop syndrome disorders(medical condition of obstructed intestine)
  • Boyd-Stearns syndrome (metabolic disorders)
  • Brinton diseases (thickening and hardening of stomach wall)
  • Cystic Fibrosis (common hereditary diseases)
  • Chronic heart diseases
  • Celiac diseases
  • Chronic renal diseases
  • Chronic lung diseases
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Congenital microvillous atrophy (chronic, intractable diarrhea in new-born infants)
  • Congenital sucrose-isomaltose malabsorption (congental deficiency or absence of the enzymes sucrase and isomaltase)
  • Chylomicron Retention Diseases (disorders of fat absorption)
  • Dementia (a serious loss of cognitive ability)
  • Eating disorders (psychiatric diseases of eating)
  • Galactosemia (rare genetic metabolic disorders)
  • pernicious anemia
  • Pancreatic insufficiency
  • Patau syndrome disorders(a chromosomal abnormality)
  • Short bowel syndrome (complete dysfunction of a large segment of bowel)
  • Third degree burns
  • Tuberculosis
  • Renal failure diseases
  • Sepsis
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Whooping Cough
  • Surgery
  • Trauma
  • Pregnancy
  • Dyspepsia
Consumption of nutrients in balanced manner is the only way to avoid nutrition disorders and malnutrition diseases.

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