Monounsaturated fatty acids - Examples

Jan 2014  Examples of monounsaturated fats
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have only one double bond in their carbon chain and the rest of the carbon atoms have only single bonds.
Oleic, palmitoleic and cis-vaccenic acids are the common examples of MUFA. The viscosity and melting point of fatty acids (FA) increases with the decrease in the number of double bonds present in them.

When compared to PUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids have greater viscosity and melting point. Saturated FAs have still higher viscosity and melting point than MUFAs.
MUFAs are liquid at room temperature and become semi-solid and then solid when refrigerated.

Examples of monounsaturated fatty acids

Common MUFAs are oleic, palmitoleic and cis-vaccenic acids. Examples natural products containing MUFA include olives, cashews, cereal, olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, macadamia oil, avocado oil, almond oil, oatmeal, whole grain wheat, tallow and sea buckthorn oil. Animal products containing MUFA are red meat and whole milk products. The Mediterranean Diet is high in MUFA due to the extensive use of olive oil in cooking.

Oleic acid (18:1 n−9)

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 FA. Its chemical structural formula is CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH and its molecular formula is C18H34O2. It is the major constituent of olive oil. Major part of human adipose tissue is constituted by oleic FA. It is present in high concentrations in chicken adipose tissue, lard and oils such as canola oil, peanut oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil.

Palmitoleic acid (16:1 n−7)

Palmitoleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-7 FA. Its chemical structural formula is CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH and its molecular formula is C16H30O2. It is present in human adipose tissue as one of the major glyceride constituent. Macadamia oil and sea buckthorn oil are examples of rich sources. Examples of diet sources include animal oils, vegetable oils and marine oils.

Many health benefits are attributed to this monounsaturated FA, such as increasing insulin sensitivity, inhibiting the destruction of beta cells, improving hepatic lipid metabolism, reducing obesity and suppressing pro-inflammatory gene expressions.

Vaccenic acid

Vaccenic acid is an omega-7 trans monounsaturated FA with the molecular formula C18H34O2. Vaccenic FA is present in the adipose tissue of ruminants. It is present in dairy products such as milk, butter, and yogurt. This trans isomer is also present in breast milk. Cis-vaccenic (18:1 n−7) is its stereoisomer, present in sea-buckthorn oil. In research studies, it was found that feeding rats with vaccenic FA, lowered total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Current topic in nutritional deficiency diseases:
Examples of monounsaturated fats.

No comments: