High calcium in blood - Hypercalcemia definition - What is hypercalcemia?

Feb 2014  High blood calcium - Hypercalcemia definition - What is hypercalcemia?
What is hypercalcemia?
Hypercalcemia is high blood calcium levels. High levels of serum calcium can be due to excessive release of the mineral from the bones, its increased absorption in the intestines or decreased excretion of calcium by the kidneys.
The most common cause of hypercalcemia is hyperparathyroidism. The hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands causes excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and causes the disorder.

PTH regulates the calcium and phosphate levels in the blood. The excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases the renal absorption of the mineral. Parathyroid hormone also induces the production of vitamin D (calcitriol) and increases the bone turnover and the release of calcium from the bones. Primary hyperparathyroidism may result due to adenoma, hyperplasia or carcinoma of the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid adenoma, parathyroid hyperplasia, parathyroid carcinoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia are some of the diseases known to cause primary hyperparathyroidism. High overdose of vitamin D in infants can cause idiopathic hypercalcemia with symptoms like increased bone density and mental retardation.

Hypercalcemia causes signs such as bone pain, renal stones, anxiety, drowsiness, confusion, increased gastric acidity, fatigue, muscle weakness and sleeplessness. The advanced hypercalcemia symptoms include cognitive dysfunction, abnormal heart rhythms and coma. When the serum levels of the mineral exceed 15–16 mg/dL or 3.75–4 mmol/l medical emergency results. Hypercalcemia treatment involves hydration, inducing urinary excretion of the mineral, decreasing its intestinal absorption.

Web definitions

1.wordnetweb.princeton.edu defines the disorder as "the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or Paget's disease".

2.thefreedictionary.com defines as "an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood, usually more than 10.5 milligrams per deciliter of blood."

3.According to merriam-webster.com, "Definition of HYPERCALCEMIA: the presence of an excess of calcium in the blood".

Current topic in nutritional deficiency diseases:
High blood calcium and hypercalcemia

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